Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
  Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), a form of Acid Rock Drainage, usually has a pH of 2.0 to 4.5 and is produced through the disturbance and exposure of large quantities of sulfide-bearing rocks by mining activities. The products of AMD formation, acidity and iron plus other heavy metals, can devastate watercourses by lowering the pH and coating stream bottoms with iron and aluminum hydroxides. These form the familiar orange-colored "yellow boy" common in areas with abandoned mine drainage, and (as at Molycorp) a bluish-white aluminum precipitate which destroys invertebrate populations and prevents trout spawning. "Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the number one environmental problem facing the mining industry. AMD is virtually impossible to reverse with existing technology once it starts." - Mineral Policy Center.
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